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L’enfermement des étrangers en séjour illégal : de mal en pis

vendredi 1 juin 2018 à 10:41

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Un nouveau centre de détention administrative devrait ouvrir au mois de juillet et pourrait accueillir des familles​​ avant leur éloignement du territoire belge…

 

Que​​ sont les centres de​​ détention administrative et comment fonctionnent-ils ?​​ 

 

Il s’agit de​​ lieux​​ de détention​​ dans lesquels sont enfermés les​​ étrangers en séjour irrégulier,​​ c’est-à-dire toutes les personnes qui ne disposent pas des documents nécessaires pour entrer ou séjourner en Belgique et qui ne font pas de demande d’asile.​​ 

 

Dans ces cas-là, si l’étranger ne quitte pas volontairement le territoire et que d’autres mesures moins coercitives n’apparaissent pas suffisantes, il peut-être être gardé en détention en attendant son départ, durant deux mois maximum.

 

Le ministre de l’Intérieur ou son délégué, l’Office des étrangers, peut prolonger cette détention par périodes de deux mois si les autorités belges démontrent qu’elles accomplissent les démarches nécessaires pour procéder à l’expulsion.​​ 

 

Après cinq mois de détention, l’étranger doit être remis en liberté, à moins que la sauvegarde de l’ordre public ou la sécurité nationale n’exige la prolongation de la détention1.​​ Cela pose la question de l’appréciation du critère d’atteinte grave à la​​ sécurité publique ou nationale.

 

Dans sa notice 2016, l’OIP dénonçait l’arbitraire de l’Office des étrangers quant à cette appréciation, celui-ci étant le seul à statuer2.

 

En décembre 2016, les associations défendant les droits des étrangers avaient publié un nouvel état des lieux de ces centres et le constat semblait inchangé « la détention administrative porte atteinte aux droits et à la dignité humaine »3.

 

Le nouveau centre​​ en question en témoigne puisque​​ situé le long des pistes de l’aéroport de Zaventem,​​ il​​ exposera les familles, et notamment les enfants, à « des​​ niveaux sonores particulièrement élevés »4. Pourtant,​​ le gouvernement a approuvé​​ l’arrêté royal qui​​ y​​ organise la détention.​​ La question des nuisances sonores pourrait​​ à nouveau​​ exposer la Belgique à des​​ condamnations.

 

En effet, la​​ détention d’enfants en séjour illégal​​ avait été suspendue il y a environ 10​​ ans après​​ plusieurs​​ condamnations qui pointaient des conditions​​ inadaptées.

 

Mais rien ne semble laisser présager que la situation des étrangers en séjour illégal tend à s’améliorer.​​ 

 

L’année dernière, « le gouvernement fédéral avait approuvé l’augmentation des capacités d’accueil pour les faire passer de 600 à 1100 d’ici 2020 »5​​ et cela se confirme. Jeudi 24 mai​​ 2018, un​​ nouvel accord a été signé par lequel​​ les Pays-Bas s’engagent à donner des préfabriqués de la prison de Tilburg pour un nouveau centre fermé à Zandvliet, le long de l’autoroute A12. Ce centre compterait 144 places pour des étrangers ayant commis des faits criminels ou délictueux.​​ 

 

Le CIRE (Coordination et Initiatives pour Réfugiés et Etrangers), structure qui réunit 23 associations qui luttent pour la reconnaissance des droits des étrangers en séjour illégal, soulève​​ le fait​​ que cette problématique questionne profondément​​ notre éthique et notre système de valeurs.

 

Dans un communiqué de presse, il affirmait notamment qu’il est temps « d’arrêter de faire croire que la détention administrative est un mal nécessaire​​ et d’utiliser les centres fermés au profit d’une politique migratoire répressive qui fait de l’enfermement la solution à toutes les problématiques sécuritaires »6.​​ 

 

 

1

​​ Le guide du prisonnier en Belgique,​​ 

3

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